Teachers: A Solution to Education Reform in India

Teachers can lead improvement in education; we need to help them develop the mindset, skills, and networks they need to create change.

It’s extremely easy to feel gloomy about teachers in India. We know that the single biggest in-school factor contributing to a child’s educational success is the quality of her teacher, and yet, across India, around 25 percent of teachers are absent every day. You’ll often find those who do show up reading the newspaper or chatting in the staff room rather than teaching—let alone teaching high-quality lessons. But this data presents only a partial view of teachers across the country. After speaking to more than 3,000 teachers working in schools serving low-income communities across Delhi last summer, we strongly believe that teachers can be part of the solution, rather than a barrier, to education reform.

Studies by the Poverty Action Lab and others help us understand effective mechanisms and incentives for improving teacher accountability, but how do we encourage teachers to want to teach well? How do we motivate and support teachers so that they become quality-conscious and see themselves as responsible for improving the system? These are the questions we are trying to answer at Schools and Teachers Innovating for Results (STIR). And although changes to school governance structures (such as those suggested in Susannah Hares’ recent “Education in India: Time for a Bold New Experiment” post) are critical, an important first step towards higher-quality education is to make teachers desire change in the first place.

STIR was launched in Delhi in 2012 with an ambition to build on what the Heath brothers—in their book Switch—call the “bright spots” that already exist in the education system. Our organization identifies, tests, and scales micro-innovations—that is, low-cost (often no-cost), teacher-led practices that have the potential to make a significant positive impact on student learning. One micro-innovation was developed by Sajid, a principal in a school attached to a madrasa in East Delhi. Sajid films his teachers’ lessons and asks them to review the film using a structured self-reflection sheet, then shares his own feedback. Another example is a student letterbox, developed by a teacher named Jasbeer, which allows students to share concerns and questions with her in writing; this closes the distance between teacher and student, and allows Jasbeer to monitor student writing.

Following a wide-ranging micro-innovation search and selection process (involving teacher feedback, partner feedback, and existing research evidence), we chose 25 high-potential micro-innovations, and are now working with more than 50 NGO, government, and private sector scaling partners (such as Pratham the Municipal Corporation of Delhi, the Azim Premji Foundation, the Bharti Foundation, and various state governments) to implement them at scale.

With our focus on identifying and scaling micro-innovations, however, we initially failed to see a major benefit of STIR. Teachers who participated in our micro-innovation search enjoyed discussing practice, getting recognition for their interesting micro-innovations, and belonging to a creative community of teachers (some teachers who participated said they had never spoken to teachers from other schools before). All of this greatly influenced their motivation and belief in their ability to lead improvement in their classrooms and schools. Like our friends Digital Green, who work with farmers, we came to realize that well-organized, face-to-face interaction is a crucial part of sharing micro-innovations, and helping teachers learn from and develop the confidence to try new ideas.

STIR is now building on the enthusiasm among teachers during our micro-innovation search to further increase motivation and interest in effective practice. Following our next search, we, along with our partners, will set up and run STIR Teachers’ Innovation Networks across the country. These networks will offer teacher support over the course of a year, diagnosing challenges they face in their schools, implementing and adapting relevant micro-innovations, and working together to measure and review their success.

Evidence shows that this kind of collaborative approach to professional development is highly effective, not just in terms of student outcomes, but also in terms of confidence and self-efficacy. By launching our networks on the foundation of a micro-innovation search, we begin our relationship with teachers by recognizing the positive contribution they make when they develop new ideas. We then help them see themselves as capable of and responsible for leading improvement in their classrooms and schools. Through a partnership with Columbia University Business School, we will measure the impact of program participation on teacher motivation, behavior, and practices.

A year in a STIR network will, we hope, help teachers take the first step toward quality-consciousness and the development of skills required to lead change. From there, our organization provides access to a range of next-step services and training provided by partners (presented in similar way to the UK’s Good CPD Guide). STIR scaling partners, as well as other organizations providing services to schools, will gain access to a group of motivated teachers who are willing to learn and teachers will get further support and encouragement to not just teach, but to teach well.

If we can equip even a small percentage of India’s approximately 8 million teachers with what they need to create change, it could have an enormous ripple effect on teaching practices and quality—and therefore on educational outcomes and life chances of millions of children in the world’s largest education system.

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  • Kevan Collins's avatar

    BY Kevan Collins

    ON July 18, 2013 02:55 AM

    Great teachers are habitual inventors adapting what’s worked, using lessons from practice doing what they can to remove barriers to understanding and ease the challenge of learning. Working with teachers to guide and encourage this all too often neglected seam of education treasure is important. Working from and with the ideas and solutions of teachers is a radical and exciting approach to professional development.

    Innovation is an essential ingredient for improvement. However, we have an obligation to go further and test the impact of change. Education is a messy business with a myriad of competing influences and variables. Collaboration within and between schools is essential to share and test ideas. STIR’s approach indicates that when teachers are encouraged to innovate, refine and test their solutions they go on to share and give their learning to others - this is what we really need to encourage.

  • Eric A. Hanushek 's avatar

    BY Eric A. Hanushek

    ON July 24, 2013 01:18 AM

    The power of STIR rests, I think, on a few very simple ideas.  First, schooling is actually a very heterogeneous enterprise, combining students with varying motivations and capacities with teachers and administrators who themselves have different skills.  Second, the best school personnel develop innovative approaches to education that frequently yield remarkable results but that remain locked within their class room and their school.  Third, exposing these innovations to sunlight and presenting a menu of them to other on-the-ground personnel hold the possibility of significant change – change that has eluded the massive, system-wide reforms that are popular with central education administrations and with state legislatures.  STIR has shaken the bushes to find the best of these.

    The experimental portion of STIR is finding how a menu of diverse innovations can be further linked to those teachers and schools that can use specific items on the list.  To me, the secret is involving the user in selection.  While not a normal perspective on disseminating a reform, we can expect local people to choose what fits best given the right incentives.

  • BY Sarah Williams

    ON December 10, 2013 04:27 AM

    Spectacular venture!! Looking forward to reading more.

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  • BY eminentinfoweb

    ON May 20, 2014 11:17 PM

    Obviously teachers are part of reforms in education because they have better understanding of students.Teachers know what current strategies going around world students must know current affairs of countries and technology oriented subjects.If we talk about technology students must be explore more about the topic for example if topic is on space science then they must explain little bit of ISRO as well as NASA with showing presentations so student can enjoy the learning.Yes for this teacher may think about salary so government may also collaborate with teachers.

  • Thanks for such a useful post.You have picked up really a good point on Indian Education System . It will make us think in that direction.What we can do to bring back the glory of Indian Education System.

  • True..The education reform must start with teachers. They play the key role in the education system and we can bring changes in education system in this way.

  • Greate news usefull informaction

  • BY Vamnicom Pune

    ON October 28, 2014 02:19 AM

    I agree with the fact that teachers are pillars for students success. I must sat STIR is doing a great job by building the widening gap between teachers and students. It will help teachers to develop teaching skills accompanied by new innovations.

  • BY pooja late

    ON January 21, 2015 04:12 AM

    I consider the actual fact that lecturers square measure pillars for college students’ success. I have to Sabbatum STIR is doing an excellent job of building the widening gap between lecturers and students. it’ll facilitate lecturers to develop teaching skills among new innovations.

  • BY coaching institutes in india

    ON June 18, 2015 12:27 AM

    Yes, teachers are the main pillars for students.

  • Teachers can play the majour role in education reform. Teachers must think about this if they really want to reform education.

  • in every student life teachers play key role only they can change the system

  • BY Rohit Kansal

    ON November 28, 2015 02:18 AM

    Values a student learns in his/her early years of his life is very important and that’s why teachers have the most important role in building a great nation.

  • BY Rohit Kansal

    ON November 28, 2015 02:19 AM

    Nation building is a continuous process and teachers must take the responsibility to nurture it.

  • BY Lalit Pant

    ON May 17, 2016 01:30 AM

    Innovation is the demand of time and our growth in all aspect is incomplete without a serious reform in the education system of our country.

  • BY Rohit desai

    ON June 22, 2016 12:55 AM

    I was going through some selected educational statistics of 2013-14. According to this, India has 7,90,640 Primary/Pre-primary schools with 12.99 crore students and 26.84 lac teachers. This gives an average of 164.3 students and 3.39 teachers per school and 48.4 students per teacher. Some astonishing figures - is it not?

    India is a vast and well populated country with 6,38,596 inhabited/uninhabited villages. Surely, towns/cities must be over and above? Nevertheless, the figures give an average of just 1.24 recognized school per village. Surely, there would be many towns/cities, which have more than one pre-primary/primary school and many may not have even one and the inhabitants may be commuting to distant places for schooling, if at all, they decide education for their wards.

    Statistics are revealing. India must aim for universal primary education, as early, as possible. We keep listening about school infrastructure - some do not have shed or proper teachers in primary schools. Some never had/have toilets. We are discussing 7,90,640 school numbers on record, not necessary each one has building, staff, furniture or other requisites. It is possible, some may not have any student and some no teacher. Quality of education is anybody’s guess? How serious teachers are for their students or are just getting salary from govt. exchequer is also questionable? How much funds are honestly utilized, is a big question mark?

    We all know that pre-primary and primary education is the first step and foundation for any child, which inculcates not only learning, but everything that is required to make a good cultured person. This is how, effluent families always want their wards’ education in the best school and spend thousands and lacs on their schooling. For them, everything from building to teacher is important and why it should not be?

    Govt. should either create all infrastructure and education system at par with private schools and if this is not possible for govt to manage or control, should move for govt funded/contracted privately run pre-primary and primary schools by educationists,entrepreneurs, retired principals/teachers. Education has to be 100% free with free books, stationery, free transport, free uniform. The genesis to materialize this can be devised, but the money being spent presently, is simply going down the drain. Let some body calculate, how much funds were spent since independence vis-a-vis wealth created in terms of educational infrastructure or quality of education achieved.

  • BY ayush sharma

    ON June 22, 2016 03:12 AM

    Firstly, there is the problem of teachers. The Indian government needs to simultaneously work on increasing both the quality and quantity of teachers at the primary level. Before giving my suggestions I would first like to illustrate the problems with the current lot of teachers.

    Over 99 percent of the 7.95 lakh teachers who appeared for the latest Central Teacher Eligibility Test, a benchmark for teacher eligibility, failed to clear the exam. This is largely due to the outdated B.Ed degree system. An NCERT paper says the B.Ed programme is too short and focuses on “rote memorisation” rather than “teaching for understanding”.

    So in order to improve the primary education system in India we have to first improve the teachers themselves. One way of doing so as recommended by the National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education of 2009 is a longer period of preparation for the teachers.

    This is a very important step and must be looked into seriously because increasing the number of teachers would do nothing to ameliorate the present situation unless and until the teachers have been properly trained to impart lessons in an interactive manner which brings out the joy of learning instead of the present crop of dry lessons emphasizing on rote learning. Only by piquing the interest of the child can you convince him to learn something new. 

    These full time teachers can be further be supplemented with voluntary educators from NGOs like Cry and Teach for India.

    Moreover something needs to be done to reduce the immense workload on teachers especially in the rural areas. Teachers in these localities have to manage several different classes and also perform duties in field completely unrelated to education. These duties — including administering government programs such as immunization clinics, assisting with data-collection for the national census, and staffing polling stations during elections — in addition to their teaching responsibilities, place significant demands on teachers’ time. Again solving this problem requires more teachers.

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