An environmental group haggling over an emissions policy. A legislator proposing a budget for a new social program. A heated debate with your spouse over who takes out the garbage. Negotiations in which someone will have to bear a cost are contentious, much more contentious – and therefore likely to lead to impasses – than negotiating over benefits (such as a year-end bonus, for instance). Individuals irrationally resist costs much more vigorously than they pursue equivalent benefits. This...

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