1 Steven Goldberg, Billions of Drops in Millions of Buckets: Why Philanthropy Doesn’t Advance
Social Progress (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009).
2 Jeffrey Zients, “Use of Evidence and Evaluation in the 2014 Budget,” Office of Management
and Budget, May 18, 2012. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/
3 The Frontiers of Innovation, Minds Wide Open: An Action Strategy and Status Report
on the Frontiers of Innovation in Early Childhood Policy and Practice, Harvard University
Center on the Developing Child, May 2012.
4 Donald Berwick, “The Science of Improvement,” The Journal of the American Medical
Association 299(10), 2008: 1,182-84.
5 Peter Orszag, “Increased Emphasis on Program Evaluations,” OMB Memorandum,
October 7, 2009.
6 Robinson Hollister and Jennifer Hill, Problems in the Evaluation of Community-Wide
Initiatives, Russell Sage Foundation, 1995.
7 Donald Berwick, “Broadening the View of Evidence-Based Medicine,” Quality &
Safety in Health Care 14, June 2005: 315.
8 Peter Orszag, “Building Rigorous Evidence to Drive Policy,” Office of Management
and Budget, June 8, 2009.
9 Frank Farrow, “Response Essay,” Voices from the Field III, Aspen Institute, 2010; and
Leila Fiester and Ralph Smith, “Learning While Doing the Three Rs: Roles, Results,
and Relationships,” Making Connections Working Paper, Annie E. Casey Foundation,
10 Marty Miles, Sheila Maguire, Stacy Woodruff-Bolte, and Carol Clymer, Putting Data
to Work: Interim Recommendations from the Benchmarking Project, Public/Private
Ventures, November 2010.
11 James Heckman, “The Economics of Inequality: The Value of Early Childhood Education,”
American Educator, Spring 2011.
12 The Washington State Institute for Public Policy estimated that using MST rather
than traditional services saves from $31,000 to $130,000 per participant.
13 Ronald Heifetz, John Kania, and Mark Kramer, “Leading Boldly,” Stanford Social Innovation
Review, Winter 2004.
14 Sharon Silow-Carroll and Jennifer Edwards, Eliminating Central Line Infections and Spreading
Success at High-Performing Hospitals, The Commonwealth Fund, December 2, 2011.
15 Mark Lipsey, James Howell, Marion Kelly, Gabrielle Chapman, and Darin Carver,
Improving the Effectiveness of Juvenile Justice Programs: A New Perspective on Evidence-Based
Practice, Georgetown University Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, December 2010.
16 Kristin Moore et al., “Program Implementation: What Do We Know?” Child Trends, 2006.
17 Mary Ellen O’Connell, Thomas Boat, and Kenneth E. Warner (eds.), Preventing Mental,
Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities
(Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009).
18 Paul LeMahieu, “What We Need in Education Is More Integrity (and Less Fidelity) of
Implementation, R&D Ruminations, Oct. 11, 2011. http://rd.carnegiefoundation.org/
19 Donald Berwick, “Eating Soup with a Fork,” Nineteenth Annual National Forum on
Quality Improvement in Health Care, December 11, 2007.
20 E.J. Dionne Jr., “A Historian Who Saw Beyond the Past,” The Washington Post, March 2, 2007.