1 https://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview; http://www.sgi-network.org/2016/; https://www.bls.gov/cpi/; http://nhspi.org/
2 There are, of course, some notable but not widely known exceptions to this statement. For example: Robert Behn, “Why Measure Performance? Different Purposes Require Different Measures,” Public Administration Review, 63, no. 5, September/ October 2003; Thomas Krause, Kristin Bell, Peter Pronovost, and Jason Etchegaray, “Measurement as a Performance Driver: The Case for a National Measurement System to Improve Patient Safety,” Journal of Patient Safety, April 4, 2017; Jeannette A. Colyvas, “Performance Metrics as Formal Structures and through the Lens of Social Mechanisms: When Do They Work and How Do They Influence?” American Journal of Education, 118, no. 2.
3 We reviewed existing literature on the system impacts of measurement, based on searches of the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Social Sciences Abstracts, EconLit, EBSCOhost Business Source, and JSTOR. Search terms are too numerous to list here, but they included phrases directly related to the impact of measurement (e.g., “role of data in social change” and “impact of performance measurement”) and to specific social and improvement movements (e.g., “women’s movement” and “clinical quality of care”). A complete list of search terms and articles is available from the authors. We thank Sarah Weilant for assistance in conducting the literature search.
4 Jill Cannon, Gail Zellman, Lynn Karoly, and Heather Schwartz, “Quality Rating and Improvement Systems for Early Care and Education Programs: Making the Second Generation Better,” Santa Monica, Calif: RAND, 2017.
5 The following articles summarize current evidence and gaps in knowledge on each of the Culture of Health Action Areas: Anita Chandra et al., “Drivers of Health as
a Shared Value: Mindset, Expectations, Sense of Community, and Civic Engagement,” Health Affairs, 35, no. 11, November 2016, pp. 1959-1963; Tamara Dubowitz et al., “Creating Healthier, More Equitable Communities by Improving Governance and Policy,” Health Affairs, 35, no. 11, November 2016, pp. 1970-1975; Laurie Martin et al., “Strengthening Integration of Health Services and Systems,” Health Affairs, 35, no. 11, November 2016, pp. 1976-1981; Vivian Towe et al., “Cross-Sector Collaborations and Partnerships: Essential Ingredients to Help Shape Health and Well-Being,” Health Affairs, 35, no. 11, November 2016, pp. 1964-1969.
6 Dan Ariely, Uri Gneezy, George Loewenstein, and Nina Mazar, “Large Stakes and Big Mistakes,” Review of Economic Studies, 76, no. 2, 2009, pp. 451–469.
7 John Padgett and Walter Powell, The Emergence of Organizations and Markets, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2012. 8 Evidence comes from a series of laboratory and field studies summarized in the following articles: Gary Latham and Edwin Locke, “New Developments in and Directions for Goal-Setting Research,” European Psychologist, 12, no. 4, 2007, pp. 290–300; Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, “Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation: A 35-Year Odyssey,” American Psychologist, 57, no. 9, 2002, pp. 705–717; Gerard Seijts and Gary Latham, “The Effects of Goal Setting and Group Size on Performance in a Social Dilemma,” Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 32, no. 2, 2000, pp. 104–116.
9 The following articles summarize evidence on framing: Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, “Choices, Values, and Frames,” American Psychologist, 39, no. 4, 1984, pp. 341- 50; Shanto Iyengar, “Television News and Citizens’ Explanations of National Affairs,” American Political Science Review, 81, no. 3, 1987, pp. 815-832; Dietram Scheufele and David Tewksbury, “Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models,” Journal of Communication, 57, no. 1, 2007, pp. 9-20.
10 http://www.cultureofhealth.org/en/taking-action/making-health-a-shared-value/ mindsets-and-expectations.html
11 US Department of Transportation, National Highway Trafic Safety Administration, “Critical Reasons for Crashes Investigated in the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey,” DOT HS 812 115, February 2015.
12 Michael Bastedo and Nicholas Bowman, “U.S. News & World Report College Rank- ings: Modeling Institutional E ects on Organizational Reputation,” American Journal of Education, 116, no. 2, 2010, pp. 163-183; Nicholas Bowman and Michael Bastedo, “Getting on the Front Page: Organizational Reputation, Status Signals, and the Impact of U.S. News and World Report on Student Decisions,” Research on Higher Education, August 2009.
13 Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones, “Agenda Dynamics and Policy Subsystems,” Journal of Politics, 53, no. 4, 1991, pp. 1044-1074; Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones, Agendas and Instability in American Politics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
14 Michael Sauder, “Interlopers and Field Change: The Entry of U.S. News into the Field of Legal Education,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 53, no. 2, 2008, pp. 209–234.
15 John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid, The Social Life of Information, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Business Review Press, 2000.