The Missing Link in School Reform

In trying to improve American public schools, educators, policymakers, and philanthropists are overselling the role of the highly skilled individual teacher and undervaluing the benefits that come from teacher collaborations that strengthen skills, competence, and a school's overall social capital.


(Illustration by Brian Stauffer) 

In Waiting for Superman, the 2010 documentary that describes the failure of American public education, several children and their families, along with educators like Geoffrey Canada and philanthropists like Bill Gates, drive home the argument that the key to school reform lies in improving the competence and skills of individual teachers. Making the case for a crisis in K-12 education is not difficult. Open any newspaper and you are likely to find an article reporting on the sorry state of US public education. Student competence in basic subjects like math and reading is alarmingly low and trails that of other nations. Three in 10 public school students fail to finish high school. Graduation rates for students in some minority groups are especially dismal, with just over half of Hispanics (55.5 percent) and African Americans (53.7 percent) graduating with their class.1

President Barack Obama and others have expressed concern about American students’ deficiencies in math and science. In comparisons among OECD member countries, 15-year-olds in the United States markedly lag in mathematics, trailing their counterparts in 30 other countries, including China, France, and Estonia.2 This should not be surprising, as a little more than a third of fourth-graders in US public schools were proficient in mathematics in 2009. Although this represents a considerable rise from 22 percent in 2000, gains have stalled in the last five years, and fourth-graders’ math proficiency actually declined in the United States between 2007 and 2009.3 Performance gets even worse as students move on to secondary school; only 26 percent of US high school students are proficient in math.

This disappointing performance has led educators, policymakers, and parents to search for ways to improve student achievement in schools. Foundations, too, are focusing on school reform, with the largest and most powerful, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, providing hundreds of millions of dollars in funding to initiatives for improving teacher competence and accountability. The accountability models increasingly in fashion find their roots in the discipline of economics rather than education, and they are exemplified in the value-added metrics now gathered by large urban school districts. These metrics assess annual increments in each student’s learning derived from standardized tests in subject areas like math and reading, which are then aggregated to arrive at a score for a teacher—her “value added” to students’ learning. Anyone can go to the website of the Los Angeles Times and find a ranking based on these scores for every teacher in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Needless to say, many teachers and the unions that represent them are opposed to value-added models, arguing that they fail to capture the complex factors which go into teaching and learning.

Value-added modeling is one example of a larger approach to improving public schools that is aimed at enhancing what economists label “human capital”—factors such as teacher experience, subject knowledge, and pedagogical skills. If a teacher’s human capital can be increased, films like Waiting for Superman argue, the United States would be well on the way to solving its alarming educational problem. But the research my colleagues and I at the University of Pittsburgh have conducted over the past decade in several large urban school districts suggests that enhancing teacher human capital should not be the sole or even primary focus of school reform. Instead, if students are to show measurable and sustained improvement, schools must also foster what sociologists label “social capital”—the patterns of interactions among teachers.4

In addition to targeting teacher human capital, many believe that a key to improving public schools lies in bringing in people outside the school, or even the school district, to solve problems. These outsiders often take the form of curriculum consultants and pedagogy “experts” from university schools of education or of teacher-to-teacher “coaches” supplied by the district office. But they also include people with almost no experience in education or public schools. Here the examples are numerous, such as the Teach for America program, which seeks out recent graduates of elite colleges to temporarily join the teaching corps in the toughest schools; or the district-financed leadership academies, which select aspiring principals partly because they lack experience in education; or the recent installation (and removal) of Cathleen Black, a magazine publisher with virtually no experience in education, as chancellor of the New York City public school system.

A natural extension of the belief in the power of outsiders is the notion that teacher tenure is the enemy of effective public education. Governors of Florida, Indiana, Nevada, New Jersey, and Tennessee all have introduced measures calling for the dismantling of teacher tenure in their states’ public schools. Implicit in such arguments is the assumption that the ranks of senior teachers are plagued by incompetence and that the less experienced would do better in their place.

A third belief centers on the role of the principal. In many reform efforts, the principal is cast as the “instructional leader” who is responsible for developing and managing pedagogical practice. In many of the current principal training programs, principals are taught how to manage curriculum, monitor lesson plans, evaluate teachers, and hold them accountable for student progress. In the language of business, the principal is a line manager expected to be a visible presence in the classroom, ensuring that teachers are doing their jobs. The principal is likewise a hands-on “super teacher” whose primary job is to be involved in the day-to-day business of instructional practice.

These three beliefs—in the power of teacher human capital, the value of outsiders, and the centrality of the principal in instructional practice—form the implicit or explicit core of many reform efforts today. Unfortunately, all three beliefs are rooted more in conventional wisdom and political sloganeering than in strong empirical research. Together they constitute what I call the ideology of school reform. And although this, like all ideology, may bring us comfort in the face of uncertainty and failure, it is unhelpful and perhaps dangerous if it leads us to pursue policies that will not bring about sustained success. Our research suggests that there is some truth to the predominant ideology. Teacher competence does affect student learning. Outsiders can bring fresh ideas and enthusiasm to tired systems. And principals do have a role in reform efforts. At the same time, our findings strongly suggest that in trying to improve public schools we are overselling the role of human capital and innovation from the top, while greatly undervaluing the benefits of social capital and stability at the bottom.

To be clear: I am not opposed to recognizing the contributions of outstanding teachers or to holding bad teachers accountable for poor performance. But I believe in the power of objective data. The results of our research challenge the prevailing centrality of the individual teacher and principal leadership in models of effective public education. Instead, the results provide much support for the centrality of social capital—the relationships among teachers—for improving public schools. (See “How to Reform Public Schools” on opposite page.) Our results suggest that we need to broaden the focus on teacher human capital to an approach that supports both human and social capital development for teachers.


In the context of schools, human capital is a teacher’s cumulative abilities, knowledge, and skills developed through formal education and on-the-job experience. For many years, teacher human capital was thought to be attained through a combination of formal education and certification both before entering the profession and throughout the course of a teacher’s career. This has been a boon to the universities that provide such training, but several studies conducted largely by economists have shown little relationship between a teacher’s accumulation of formal education and actual student learning. In our studies, teacher educational attainment similarly shows little effect on improving student achievement.

Due partly to the questions raised by these studies, recent approaches to developing teacher human capital have looked beyond formal educational requirements. Many approaches emphasize ongoing professional development. At a different end of the spectrum are the approaches of education economists, who use value-added modeling to tie teacher performance directly to student achievement with the effect of exposing underperforming teachers. A variant of this is merit pay, which monetarily rewards teachers whose students demonstrate high achievement and sometimes imposes a financial penalty on teachers whose students perform poorly.

Social capital, by comparison, is not a characteristic of the individual teacher but instead resides in the relationships among teachers. In response to the question “Why are some teachers better than others?” a human capital perspective would answer that some teachers are just better trained, more gifted, or more motivated. A social capital perspective would answer the same question by looking not just at what a teacher knows, but also where she gets that knowledge. If she has a problem with a particular student, where does the teacher go for information and advice? Who does she use to sound out her own ideas or assumptions about teaching? Who does she confide in about the gaps in her understanding of her subject knowledge?

Social capital is a concept that gained traction in sociology with the publication of James Coleman’s work comparing students in public and parochial schools. He found that parochial school students performed better and attributed this to the social links among parents and within neighborhoods, which strengthened student support systems. In business, social capital has received attention because of its role in creating intellectual resources within a firm.5

Our research shows that social capital is also at work in schools. When a teacher needs information or advice about how to do her job more effectively, she goes to other teachers. She turns far less frequently to the experts and is even less likely to talk to her principal. Further, when the relationships among teachers in a school are characterized by high trust and frequent interaction—that is, when social capital is strong—student achievement scores improve.


Although we have conducted studies of teacher human and social capital in several school districts,I will focus here on a large-scale project conducted in the New York City public schools. Between 2005 and 2007, we followed more than 1,000 fourth- and fifth-grade teachers in a representative sample of 130 elementary schools across the city. We examined one-year changes in student achievement scores in mathematics. That is, we looked at how much each student’s knowledge of mathematics advanced in the year he or she spent with a particular teacher. We also took into account the economic need, attendance, and special education status of a child, because these factors might affect not just the level of student learning but also the rate of learning growth.

We examined several facets of teacher human capital, including experience in the classroom and educational attainment, as predictors of student achievement gains. We also had all teachers respond to a series of classroom scenarios developed and validated at the University of Michigan, which measured each teacher’s ability to instruct children in the logic of mathematics.6 Thus our human capital indicators included teacher education, experience, and ability in the classroom.

In addition to these more objective indicators, we surveyed more than 1,200 kindergarten through fifth grade teachers in one New York City subdistrict and asked them to report how competent they felt teaching particular aspects of math. We found that many elementary school teachers reported that they did not like to teach math and did not feel particularly competent at it. Teachers in the early grades were particularly uncomfortable, but even in fifth grade, three in 10 teachers expressed little confidence in their preparation for teaching basic math concepts like ratios and fractions. As explained by one New York City math coach: “Elementary school teachers are math-phobes. They are scared of teaching math because they don’t feel like they’re very good at it themselves.”


So we asked the teachers whom they talked to when they had questions or needed advice. Did they go to other teachers, to the school principal, or to the coaches hired by the district specifically to help them to be better math teachers? And how much did they trust the source of the advice they received? What we found is that in most instances teachers seek advice from one another. Teachers were almost twice as likely to turn to their peers as to the experts designated by the school district, and four times more likely to seek advice from one another than from the principal. As one New York City teacher explained, “It’s dangerous to express vulnerability to experts or administrators because they will take your professional status away” and replace it with scripted textbooks.

Most striking, students showed higher gains in math achievement when their teachers reported frequent conversations with their peers that centered on math, and when there was a feeling of trust or closeness among teachers. In other words, teacher social capital was a significant predictor of student achievement gains above and beyond teacher experience or ability in the classroom. And the effects of teacher social capital on student performance were powerful. If a teacher’s social capital was just one standard deviation higher than the average, her students’ math scores increased by 5.7 percent.

One New York City teacher described how social capital works in her school: “Teaching is not an isolated activity. If it’s going to be done well, it has to be done collaboratively over time. Each of us sets our own priorities in terms of student outcomes. For example, one teacher might emphasize students knowing all the facts and operational skills. Another might think that what’s most important is to develop a love of learning in students. Still another teacher might want to develop students to be better critical thinkers and problem solvers, and they’re not as concerned about students memorizing the facts. A good teacher needs to help students develop all of those things, but it’s easy to get stuck in your own ideology if you are working alone. With collaboration, you are exposed to other teachers’ priorities and are better able to incorporate them to broaden your own approach in the classroom.”

What happens when you combine human and social capital? What if teachers are good at their jobs and also talk to one another frankly and on a regular basis about what they do in math class? If human capital is strong, individual teachers should have the knowledge and skills to do a good job in their own classrooms. But if social capital is also strong, teachers can continually learn from their conversations with one another and become even better at what they do.

Our results in New York City confirmed this expectation. We found that the students of high-ability teachers outperformed those of low-ability teachers, as proponents of human capital approaches to school improvement would predict. More significant were the interactions between human and social capital. Students whose teachers were more able (high human capital) and also had stronger ties with their peers (strong social capital) showed the highest gains in math achievement. Conversely, students of teachers with lower teaching ability (low human capital) and weaker ties with their peers (weak social capital) showed the lowest achievement gains. We also found that even low-ability teachers can perform as well as teachers of average ability if they have strong social capital. Strong social capital can go a long way toward off setting any disadvantages students face when their teachers have low human capital.

I interviewed a teacher from a California school district who provided a vivid example of how human and social capital can be mutually reinforcing: “In my school, we ask teachers to set up a schedule where they observe someone else’s classroom at least twice a year. Teachers really see the benefit, and we get 80 to 90 percent voluntary participation. So not only does the teacher who is being observed get peer feedback, but the observing teachers learn new methods or approaches. With new teachers this is really important, and most are really grateful for the help. One year I had a brand-new teacher who had never really taught before. She spent every one of her prep periods just observing my class and what I taught, and then she would do the same thing in her class a few days later. This sort of modeling was really helpful to her in developing her own competence and confidence.”

In presenting these results to education experts, I generally find that there are lots of questions and a great deal of interest. When I present them to teachers, the results immediately resonate and many express relief that their informal work networks are finally being recognized as a valuable resource. When presenting them to school administrators, however, I have faced more skepticism and some unwillingness to let go of long-held beliefs about the need to monitor teachers and set strict guidelines for practice in the classroom. Such skepticism is captured in the words of Michele Rhee, the ousted superintendent of the Washington, D.C., school district and an ardent supporter of reform efforts that stress scripted approaches to teaching. According to Ms. Rhee, “cooperation, collaboration, and consensus building are way overrated.”7


Teacher tenure is a topic of intense debate among education policymakers. Opponents argue that tenure systems shelter the worst teachers from dismissal or even remedial action. As New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie said recently, teacher tenure is a system “where excellence is not rewarded and failure is not disciplined.”8 New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg has long argued against the “last in, first out” protection that tenure provides, asserting that by allowing more senior teachers to keep their jobs in tough times and laying off less experienced teachers, the district as a whole suffers.

Proponents argue that tenure protects experienced teachers from bad administrators and allows teachers to use their own professional judgment to make decisions in the classroom. After all, who is better positioned to make pedagogical decisions than the teachers who have day-to-day responsibility for student learning? These views on teacher tenure are in stark opposition to each other, although both arguments center on the value of teacher experience to student success. Tenure proponents explicitly argue for the centrality of experience in the making of a good teacher, whereas opponents of tenure implicitly undervalue experience.

Although our research does not tackle the complex social and political aspects of the tenure debate, our results in New York City clearly come down on the side of teacher experience, showing that greater tenure in the classroom leads to higher student achievement gains. There is one caveat to this finding, however, and it concerns where that experience is gained. Students show stronger growth in math achievement when their teacher has spent more time teaching at the same grade level. The value of experience—and the growth in teacher knowledge that accompanies it—is found in what psychologists call contextualized learning or, in the case of elementary school teachers, learning how to teach children at a particular point in their chronological development.

To illustrate, let’s compare two hypothetical teachers, both of whom have five years of experience teaching elementary school math. Susan Monroe has spent all five years teaching fourth-graders, while colleague Catherine Carpenter has spent two years teaching second-graders, two years teaching fourth-graders, and one year teaching fifth-graders. Our results show that Monroe’s students are likely to outperform Carpenter’s students. Why would this be? One could argue that Carpenter has had more diverse assignments and thus broader experience, and that her students should benefit from the breadth of human capital she’s developed. But Monroe has stayed with fourth-graders and, although she hasn’t had the breadth of Carpenter’s experience, she has developed depth in her human capital. Learning mathematics—even at the elementary level—appears to be a sufficiently complex enterprise that the depth of teacher experience matters more than the breadth of experience.

Another factor might be the enhanced social capital that comes with tenure in one grade. Like most urban school districts, in New York City there is a significant movement of teachers from school to school and even outside of the district. We found that one-year teacher turnover rates averaged almost 20 percent in the 130 schools in our study. One cost to such high turnover is that when teachers leave, they take with them not just their human capital but their social capital as well. So if Monroe moves to a different school, not only does she take with her the knowledge gained from five years of experience teaching math to fourth-graders (a loss of human capital), but her absence also disrupts the network of relationships that the fourth-grade teachers in the school have built with one another (a loss of social capital). In some New York City schools, particularly those with a challenging student body, teacher turnover rates averaged 40 percent and more each year. With all the movement, many teachers felt that spending time on developing social capital was not a good investment: No one expected to be there very long.

At the same time, social capital can be a lifeline in chaos. I recently talked to a teacher who described her experience in a troubled San Francisco elementary school after being involuntarily transferred to teach in a new grade. “I taught fourth grade for two years, then, without asking, I got switched to third grade. I really wasn’t sure what I was doing, and there were so many content areas that I had never taught before, so I wasn’t sure what to emphasize and what the kids were likely to struggle with,” says the teacher. “I was fortunate in that I signed up voluntarily for a program that was available called Peer Assistance and Review, where an experienced third-grade teacher was my mentor, available to be my sounding board, and give me guidance and new ideas that weren’t in the textbook. We had a set time to work together every week, but I talked to her informally nearly every day. This was just invaluable to me and showed the power of peer-to-peer learning.”

In our research we found social capital losses to be highly detrimental to student achievement. We compared the rates of turnover in each of the 130 schools in our New York City study and related those to student achievement. As we expected, the higher the teacher turnover rate at the school, the lower the student achievement gains the following year. But it also mattered which teachers left, in terms of their levels of human and social capital. When teacher turnover resulted in high losses of either human or social capital, student achievement declined. But when turnover resulted in high losses of both human and social capital, students were particularly disadvantaged. These results show that teacher tenure can have significant positive effects on student achievement.


Teachers are not, of course, the only school professionals who have been the focus of reformers. Principals, too, have been in the spotlight with much of the recent activity centered on training them to serve as the school leader of pedagogical change. To address the role of the principal, I will draw on data we collected in the Pittsburgh public schools over the past decade. In this study we examined human and social capital among teachers, but here we also focused on what the principal did to enhance or hinder teachers’ efforts. We used a time diary method, asking principals to record all their activities during a typical workweek. To ensure that principals were recording activities in real time, we had each principal carry a PDA and record activities when prompted by a beeper.

We found that principals, like most managers, multitask in their jobs and also do a significant amount of unplanned work each day. On average, principals recorded more than 60 distinct tasks in a five-day workweek. As expected, they spent the largest portion of their time—an average of 57 percent, or 28 hours per week—on administrative matters like facility management and paperwork. They spent a far smaller portion of their time—25 percent on average— on instructional activities like mentoring and monitoring teachers. Still less of their time—14 percent on average—was spent on external relations like meeting with parents, developing community relations, going to community meetings, and interacting with outsiders, such as foundations and publishers, to enhance the school’s resources. But it is this latter class of activities—which can be conceived of as building external social capital—that made the difference both for teachers and for students.

When principals spent more time building external social capital, the quality of instruction in the school was higher and students’ scores on standardized tests in both reading and math were higher. Conversely, principals spending more of their time mentoring and monitoring teachers had no effect on teacher social capital or student achievement. The more effective principals were those who defined their roles as facilitators of teacher success rather than instructional leaders. They provided teachers with the resources they needed to build social capital—time, space, and staffing—to make the informal and formal connections possible.


What do these findings tell us about effective education policy? First, they suggest that the current focus on building teacher human capital—and the paper credentials often associated with it—will not yield the qualified teaching staff so desperately needed in urban districts. Instead, policymakers must also invest in measures that enhance collaboration and information sharing among teachers. In many schools, such social capital is assumed to be an unaffordable luxury or, worse, a sign of teacher weakness or inefficiency. Yet our research suggests that talking to peers about the complex task of instructing students is an integral part of every teacher’s job and results in rising student achievement.

Second, our findings suggest that there is not enough emphasis on the value of teacher stability. We found direct, positive relationships between student achievement gains in mathematics and teacher tenure at grade level and teacher social capital. This suggests that current political efforts to undercut teacher stability and experience may come at a very steep cost.

Third, our results question the conventional wisdom about the power of the principal as the internal leader of teachers in school reform efforts. Principals spending their time on instructional activities and teacher interaction had no effect on teacher social capital or student achievement. But principals who spent more of their time on collaborating with people and organizations outside the school delivered gains to teachers and students alike.

Building social capital in schools is not easy or inexpensive. It requires time and typically the infusion of additional teaching staff into the school. It requires a reorientation away from a Teacher of the Year model and toward a system that rewards mentoring and collaboration among teachers. It also asks school principals and district administrators to become more external in their focus—spending less time looking over teachers’ shoulders and more time on collaboration with potential outside supporters of teachers’ efforts. But after decades of failed programs aimed at improving student achievement through teacher human capital and principal leadership, such investments in social capital are cheap by comparison and off er far more promise of measurable gains for students.

Carrie R. Leana is the George H. Love Professor of Organizations and Management at the University of Pittsburgh, where she holds appointments in the Graduate School of Business, the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, and the School of Medicine. Her current research is focused on organizational processes and employee outcomes, with a particular emphasis on the nonprofit service sector.

Tracker Pixel for Entry

1 Graduation by the Numbers: Putting Data to Work for Student Success, Editorial Projects
in Education Research Center, 2010.

2 OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, 2009.

3 NAEP Mathematics 2009.

4 Carrie Leana and Frits Pil,"Social Capital and Organizational Performance: Evidence
from Urban Public Schools," Organization Science 17, 2006: 1-14; Frits Pil and
Carrie Leana,"Applying Organizational Research to Public School Reform" The
Academy of Management Journal
52, 2009: 1,101-1,124.

5 James Coleman, "Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital," American Journal
of Sociology
94, 1990: 95-120; Janine Nahapiet and Sumantra Ghoshal,"Social Capital,
Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage" Academy of Management Review
23, 1998: 242-266.

6 Heather Hill, Stephen Schilling, and Deborah Ball, "Developing Measures of Teachers'
Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching," Elementary School Journal 105(1), 2004: 11-30.

7 Michelle Rhee in a speech at the Aspen Institute Education Summit, Mayflower Hotel,
Washington, D.C., Sept. 15, 2008.

8 "N.J. Governor Puts Teacher Tenure in Hot Seat," National Public Radio, All Things
Considered, Jan. 17, 2011.


  • BY Ted Kolderie Senior Associate Center for Policy

    ON August 19, 2011 11:30 AM

    The author describes accurately the “standard-enlightened” notion of reform. The results from the study in New York are encouraging.

    But the recommendations, though useful—teachers observing each other; asking each other for advice—are minimal. There is no indication the author is aware at all of the developments in teacher-collaboration that go much further and that hold really encouraging promise for building the social capital she has in mind.

    What’s appearing is the simple idea of organizing the school as a partnership of teachers, on the model common in most fields we call professional. These partnership schools exist. They work. They accomplish the goals the author has in mind. The growing interest on the part of the teacher unions, at both the local and national level, is now quite striking.

    The idea is fully explained and real cases are described on

  • BY Archana Sridhar

    ON August 22, 2011 09:07 AM

    As an American expat living in Canada, one of the issues that I think is too often overlooked – including in this assessment – is the funding model for public schools that is based in large part on local/district property taxes, rather than allocated on a city-wide or even state-wide basis.  In Toronto, the city’s school board allocates funding across the entire city in a fair way, to level the playing field for all children and make sure that resources for the basic right of education are spread out equitably.  There are also innovative publicly-funded charter schools with different focuses (music, sports, LGBTQ, etc.) and parents can use a voucher system to transfer their children to other schools quite easily.

    Overall, I think more scholars should look at the funding formula for public schools in the U.S., as discussed by the Supreme Court in their decision in San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 411 U.S. 1 (1973).  In the U.S., there are super-rich schools in the suburbs while there are under-funded and under-resourced schools just a few miles away.  In my opinion, time spent on critiques of teachers’ unions or advocating for charter schools is just time wasted until the basic funding model is addressed.

  • BY Noah Geisel

    ON August 23, 2011 11:19 AM

    Interesting read, more so when taken in the context of a response to Waiting for Superman.  In the face of many powerful and well-funded reforms that are often based on what intuitively makes sense, it is refreshing to see research behind the prescriptions.  The findings about the principal strike me as especially important as our school leaders are spending 85% of their time on tasks that minimally impact student and teacher growth. 

    Some questions I would have been interested to see answered with the data that was gathered:
    1. Did the selectivity of teachers’ colleges impact how much their students grew?
    2. Was there a noticeable correlation between advanced teacher degrees and student growth?
    3. How did teacher prep (traditional vs. non-traditional) impact students?
    4. With the finding that consistency is important to both human and social capital, were there any patterns with the principals that lend support to strategies that will help with teacher retention?
    5. Were there any findings in relation to the principals that concerned human capital?

  • BY Vanessa Wilkins

    ON August 28, 2011 08:25 AM

    Absent from this debate is any mention of the relationship between students and teachers. Great teachers not only understand how to teach a group of similarly aged students some specific content, but they care about the students as individuals and find ways to make the content engaging and accessible to each student.

    I once toured an inner city school performing well above its peers where, “No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship” was painted prominently in the entry way. Just yesterday, my youngest daughter said, “John and I have a special bond,” referring to her first grade teacher. John is the best elementary teacher I have ever encountered and I have no doubt that every other child in his class would also say they share a special bond with him.

    For children considered “at risk” this relationship is even more important as they often feel misunderstood, anxious and unprepared in a traditional classroom setting. Perhaps it is unrealistic for all teachers to be expected to form significant relationships with enormous classes of children who change every year. In this case, we need to consider changing our “batch model” education system to incorporate long-term mentors/role models/advisors who can shepherd children they invest in understanding through an educational system that incorporates technology and other blended learning systems to ensure children are reached at their level in a way that supports their learning style.

    Program such as Friends of the Children provide long-term individual support on the periphery of schools to some of the most vulnerable children in the country. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if all children had an individual support plan that included someone who could shepherd them through a system with multiple options for learning and competence building?

  • Tim Scott, Assistant Superintendent, Southmoreland's avatar

    BY Tim Scott, Assistant Superintendent, Southmoreland

    ON August 30, 2011 11:15 AM

    The article is an interesting read and very timely, yet the author’s failure to offer a viable solution to the issue of building social capital in schools and districts, unfortunately does not benefit practitioners, who are accountable for raising student achievement levels. In 2011, the Pittsburgh Business Times ranks the Southmoreland School District as the 18th most overachieving district in Pennsylvania. Six years ago, Southmoreland was in school improvement and the poorest performer in Westmoreland County. Since, we have implemented Richard DuFour’s professional learning community model of frequent teacher collaboration focused on improved learning and student achievement. The model is wholly based on the author’s vision of building social capital to improve learning. A great web resource is

    In order for schools to transform, however, school schedules must change to allow for teacher collaboration time to be built in as a routine part of the school day. This becomes a major sticking point because as all K-12 educators know, we’re prisoners to our schedules. It’s much easier and safer to recycle the same schedule year after year.

  • Joanne Yatvin, retired teacher, principal, distric's avatar

    BY Joanne Yatvin, retired teacher, principal, distric

    ON August 30, 2011 12:28 PM

    As a former elementary principal at two very different schools, one for thirteen years and the other for twelve years, I am pleased to see research that confirms my personal experience.  In both schools we were able to build a strong collegial environment that produced fruitful innovations and well educated students. Some important aspects of my job were to give teachers the best schedules possible with common planning times for teachers at the same grade levels, provide instructional aides during reading and math blocks, allow teachers to try new ideas that seemed promising, supply them with the equipment and materials they needed, listen to their problems, celebrate their successes, take the flack from the district office, deal with difficult parents, and explain to our community what we were doing and why.  One summer I sat through a week-long summer math workshop (that I had already taken) with my teachers because I felt it was important to be shoulder to shoulder with them and because I wanted to know how they felt about what they were learning and how I could help them.  Over all those years, I counseled a few teachers who were weak out of the profession, but mostly I helped teachers to rise to excellence—and some of them to local and national stardom.

  • Jane Sharp, retired principal, current School Boar's avatar

    BY Jane Sharp, retired principal, current School Boar

    ON August 30, 2011 02:01 PM

    In my twenty years as an elementary principal the most power tool I finally discovered was based strongly on the collaboration of teachers.  It is called Professional Learning Communities and used common pretests and post tests on (state designated) units of learning. Grade level teams worked together to plan, teach, challenge those needing acceleration, and reteach as needed for mastery.  What developed was a common feeling of respect, support, and shared responsibility for the progress of all children at their grade.  My main job was to make sure their schedules allowed daily common planning time, obtain the materials they needed, facilitate a weekly whole school remediation/acceleration block, and daily be a cheerleader for what they were doing and the success they achieved.  In our second year we were the only Title I school in our district to achieve NCLB AYP and in the following year were recognized by the state for success in closing the Achievement Gap between our subsidized meal and full pay students.  Thank you for your research and report adding support to this organizational strategy.

  • Joe Beckmann's avatar

    BY Joe Beckmann

    ON September 2, 2011 02:58 PM

    As a long term consultant and observer of schools, colleges, students and teachers, I find this an oddly insightful and naive view of social capital. Most poignantly, the author’s view of “objective” data is simply wrong. All things quantified are not necessarily objective, but, at best, simply relative. And all things not quantified are not, automatically, subjective, but, at worst, inadequately documented. I’ve found, for one glaring example, looking at the AGE of students and their attendance rates often reveals grade retention or early promotion, either of which are far more consequential than grades, grade level, or, goodness knows, test scores. Systems that regularly retain low performers in standard tests ALWAYS have dropout rates beyond their peers - the Consortium on Chicago School Research proved that years ago, but it’s still a common practice. Teach ‘em they’re dumb and they’ll be dumb! Or at least smart enough to escape your punishments.

    Conversely, her view that teachers teach best who learn from and teach other teachers is both obvious and insightful, since the “feeling” (really pretty subjective, indeed) of a school has demonstrable impact on how much, how quickly, and how usefully students learn and teachers enjoy their job. This view suggests that the easiest way to improve school performance is ... tenure and stability, which seem remarkably different from the tactics of the Obama education directorate.

    Two specific problems I find with her view of social capital: it is not understanding the “developmental stage” of 4th grade that makes teachers better who teach longer in the same or similar grade. It is their comfort with the material. All 4th grade students are NOT at the same “developmental stage.” As Larry Cremin loved to say at TC many ages ago, the reason we have 8 grades in this country is that the first graded school, the Quincy School in Boston, was built in 1847 by a builder who, having appraised the site, built 8 rooms. There is NO developmental foundation for sequencing eight years, and therefor very thin if any foundation to presume developmental differences between an 8 year old and 10 year old are significant enough to have substantial impact. Yet there is plenty of reason to presume that Dick and Jane 3, after a few years of reading, gets better, worse, or at least easier to communicate to similar kids every year.

    The other side of that issue of stability, incidentally, is just as important. Observing a 6th grade when teaching either a 5th or 7th will surely help know what teachers and kids expect. Frankly, observing anything will improve everything. As Louis Agassiz demanded of his freshmen in biology every year 6 weeks of “watch your fish” before testing the hypothesis that fish have bones, watching teachers teach and kids learn is itself a deep and moving, informing and refining experience. One does, however, have to know how and what to watch, which is only rarely a part of ed school, and even more rarely a part of supervisors’ or administrators’ orientation to creating social capital.

  • Katrahure Gjaja's avatar

    BY Katrahure Gjaja

    ON September 7, 2011 03:23 AM

    Finding a correlation between scores and social capital as well as an interaction between social and human capital with respect to math scores sounds very promising. But, there is no intervention that is being tested in this research. Coming from an experimental background, I am much more interested in what sort of intervention could the educational system test that would bring about such results. I believe it is a matter that is worth researching further, particularly the design of an intervention that improves teachers’  social capital.

  • Lee Anna Stirling, Education Consultant's avatar

    BY Lee Anna Stirling, Education Consultant

    ON September 7, 2011 06:34 AM

    One of the points made in Carrie R. Leana’s article is that when teachers have collegial connections with various colleagues they are exposed to diverse teaching ideologies and strategies.  With non-teaching time during the working day - and a school climate that normalizes teachers learning with and from one another - teachers can then hone teaching approaches different from the ones they usually use. Broadening learning experiences for students increases students’ engagement and thus focus and attendance.  With collegial conversations and observations, teachers also have opportunities to further hone approaches they already are using.

    Tim Scott’s point about teachers’ schedules and Joanne Yatvin’s points and examples from her practice illustrate the importance of school leaders in creating a climate and structures where teachers more likely will engage in professional conversations and collaboration with one another.

  • I appreciate Carrie Leana’s article—though I don’t agree with her conclusions.  I often am challenged as I am increasingly seeing that very few education researchers have taught in low-income settings.

    The fact that teachers should collaborate more is a true one.  Indeed they should.  That said, if teacher collaboration was a benefit given the current talent pipeline, imagine the incremental benefit of improving the pipeline in the teaching profession.  I do fully believe that teachers these days are doing the best job they know how—that said, I have heard many teachers say, “they don’t pay me for X, Y, and Z.”  The reality is, with the state of education in our country, even though we don’t pay teachers enough, indeed the job teachers are signing up for is the challenging one of X, Y, and Z.  That said, we need to improve the pipeline of teachers. 

    So I don’t disagree that teacher collaboration is important.  I just think it’s value is even increased by having exceptional human capital in the education field that is collaborating.

  • Academia at any level tends to be less collaborative in nature then other professions. It’s mostly in part to the fact that there is an element of isolation, pride and ownership of curriculum that gets in the way. This is completely anecdotal evidence, but nonetheless is my hunch and is often more correct then not.

    The authors in the study were able to demonstrate that a higher level of social capital improved academic performance of students. How much of a difference, I believe is not mentioned, but an increase was identified. In addition to my anecdotal evidence, I have spent some time conducting social network analysis in a number of schools and found very low connectivity among and between teachers. The principal of these schools were often shocked by the findings as prior to revealing the results we would have a conversation of how connected they thought their teachers were. Often, they came in 30 to 40% higher then what we found.

    Their perception of an environment that was collaborative was not where they thought it was or should be. This made it easier to introduce interventions that addressed this. Typically, the starting point began with training teachers on how to get better connected with peers. More importantly, we had to identify the motivating factor behind why a teacher would want to collaborate more in the first place. Time after time, the motivating factor came back ‘if it makes the job easier, I’ll do it’. This became the driving force behind our efforts to increase the levels of connectivity.

    Most importantly, as the teachers became more aware of the value that existed within their network and were able to leverage it, the more they thought about their students and how they could do the same thing. This new skill acquired by their students further simplified the teachers job because from being the only resource for help, the students could leverage others in their networks for support.

    The study in this article represents a common sense aspect of improving workplace performance. However, we know that common sense is not always that common. Social capital, if leveraged, can improve performance ten fold. However, just because mechanisms are built to support connectivity, does not mean that individuals will have the skills to tap into these social resources. Collaboration, connecting with others, helping students connect is a skill that must be acquired if social capital is to be utilized. The good news is that, becoming a better networker is a learnable skill.

  • Deborah W. Meier's avatar

    BY Deborah W. Meier

    ON September 20, 2011 10:08 AM

    Organizing schools for this kind of collaboration would be hard, but well worth it.  However if all the teachers are really doing “collaboratively” is finding more successful ways to prepare kids for standardized tests, I’m not sure whether the time spent is worth it—although indeed it may produce better math scores.  But as all math scores go up, the gap may remain the same or worse—and thus in the end it may not lead where we anticipate,  We need more studies that look down the line at how our work influences young people’s thinking and doing.  Also, probably there were not sufficient numbers of teachers in the study who taught multi-age classes or take kids from one grade to another Knowing one’s students well may be more important than just knowing that year’s curriculum well.  The description of the principal’s workload sounds realistic but damning to the profession!  A collaborative staff needs to include the principal’s input, and everyone needs more time to meet with families and observe classrooms.  But principals, having a larger view of the schools situation—because they know it well—are also in the best position to “protect” it from inappropriate interference—the “political” side of their job.  In a public system they ought not to have to spend time competing with other public schools for resources.  The idea itself is ugly.  And telling.

    Deborah Meier

  • BY Robert Brady

    ON September 21, 2011 10:02 AM

    Its not the teachers’ fault our students are falling behind. Its the administration governing our school system. The belief that applying Standards that have been used for generations in today’s reality are out-dated. Its the curriculum that needs to change…..

  • Allison Walters's avatar

    BY Allison Walters

    ON October 7, 2011 12:11 PM

    I just had a quick question as I am looking over the comments about this article.  How many of you who posted are currently teaching in a public school?

  • BY Rod Clemmons, Faculty, HOPE Foundation

    ON November 3, 2011 10:33 AM

    There is less collaboration going than the principal thinks.  It is rare to find genuine collaboration through which there is complete openness, unrestrained sharing, and deep discussion.  Time, opportunity, political correctness, and the established pecking order stand in the way.  Further, collaboration must have a context and support system that builds a continuous loop of instructional design, judicious intervention, active engagement, assessment, and revision.  Collaboration in such an environment becomes fully shared school leadership.  Many schools that have adopted Alan Blankstein’s “Failure Is Not an Option” principles have experienced true collaborative transformation and unexpected success.

  • I think this author does a great job highlighting factors conducive to building strong learning organizations.  I also think the author should push the envelope and include students into the discussion of school policy and its implementation.  If more information is necessary to improve instruction, why not ask those that are experiencing it first hand?  There is a serious body of literature already out there that highlights the efficacy of student voice in school reform.

  • BY Chris Miraglia

    ON March 3, 2012 07:15 PM

    As a teacher in the public school system for twenty-seven years who has seen trends come and go, the collaboration model has most benefited me as teacher.  I was involved with a Teaching American History grant for four years which changed my teaching.  I was involved with a group of teachers who were willing to discuss pedagogy intermingled with content and I found that this was the atmosphere which I flourished. My teaching changed from being a status quo teacher to one that was willing to take risks and constructively assess my classroom performance.  The statement in the research section that states “teaching is not an isolated activity” hits home.  If I close my door to my peers and teach what I think is the most beneficial manner for my students, I create a myopic view of my teaching.  However, when I discuss lessons with my history teaching colleagues (which I do weekly) I receive input that helps me grow as a teacher.  I agree with previous comments about stability and turnover which have a dire effect on fostering collaboration.  I only hope that our policymakers will have the foresight to embrace proven collaborative teaching models and provide our schools with capital to carry out such programs.

  • BY Laura Coscarelli

    ON March 9, 2012 08:58 AM

    Read about Learning Studios here:, a model of teacher collaborative practice from the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future.

  • BY Patricia Keller

    ON November 18, 2012 07:35 PM

    My name is Patricia Keller. I am a special educator. I am honored to be a part of the leaders program. The first session was very informative and powerful. I look forward to working with the teachers and be one of the voices for all teachers.

  • Paul P. Nasuti's avatar

    BY Paul P. Nasuti

    ON December 5, 2013 12:11 AM

    Our Institution needs a systemic shift in pedagogy.  The model in place purposefully rewards the competitive aspect of human nature because it developed when accumulating resources on a global scale, through empire building, required an easily manageable populace.  Industrialization made good use of the model as is this current protocol where the few are allowed to hoard resources (money) to the detriment of the many.

    An Earth based education model offers the across the board balancing influences we seven billion and counting are in desperate need of.  By giving every child at every grade level a real world, hands on, multi-sensory, inter-disciplinary experience in each community’s natural settings, led by educational specialists, we will begin to guide the learning of the whole human being by connecting state learning objectives with the air, water and soil products of which our innate intelligence is made.  With this change we show a balanced appreciation for both what we are made of and what we learn from others.

    The Earth shows by example that symbiotic, cooperative experiences far outnumber those that are competitive.  And we learn first from examples set around us.  For those of us who, as educators, understand and accept that progressive reform supporting hope is our constant motivation, we need begin to include in general discussion the need for this evolutionary change to how we perform our function.  “Learn from history, or be doomed to repeat it”, is wisdom enough to responsibly accept the challenge of our time.

  • She shows social capital as an essential component of school change.University Essays She basically audits the hypothesis that enhancing the human capital of schools and educational systems ought to be the center of school change.

  • Sammy Neil's avatar

    BY Sammy Neil

    ON March 16, 2015 01:06 AM

    Yes, that’s true. School education system give you the meaning to learn about the manner, behavior which is also called social capital. Help Do Homework also provide complete details about the school reform.

  • Celina Jones's avatar

    BY Celina Jones

    ON March 25, 2015 12:48 PM

    Today distance learning is increasing with immense booming trend and several well-known educational institutions are offering accredited life experience degree to adult students who may demonstrate that they have gathered every one of the key abilities this a student would find out with a traditional academics class.

  • BY Adrian Anderson

    ON March 27, 2015 11:30 PM

    Changes must be made in school education system. Students must be educated in a competitive manner. Healthy competition is the key to success in the modern society. Many multinational companies are looking for talented employees. Now it is the responsibility of the school authorities and the education department to make new and improved structure of education. Sometimes students also can’t focus on their studies while maintaining balance between work and studies, and usually need Dissertation Writing help from experts. Which is of very good help. So they can focus more on studies.

  • BY Charles Kipkorir

    ON July 20, 2015 01:52 PM

    I think the article has hit the nail on the head. Current, education system leaves a gap between what employers seek from graduating students. Companies are looking student who have ideas and are talented enough to add to companies bottom line. I believe it is the work of education authorities and government to improve current structures of education and create balance of what the job market needs and requires of students. Therefore, students my enroll in institution that are a 21st Century School to be competitive.

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  • LilyTyer's avatar

    BY LilyTyer

    ON October 5, 2015 03:21 AM

    Well collaboration is obviously more better than an individual teacher since it would result in better coordination among the teachers. UK Essay Writing has also written a lot on this subject.

  • Well collaboration help to connect with each other and help to share the ideas ivf center in jaipur

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  • On average, principals recorded more than 60 distinct tasks in a five-day workweek. As expected, they spent the largest portion of their time—an average of 57 percent, or 28 hours per week—on administrative matters like facility management and paperwork. buy college research papers

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Helping Children Succeed: What Works and Why

By Paul Tough

Building on his previous work about the importance of personal traits such as perseverance in student success, Paul Tough focuses Helping Children Succeed on how educators, policymakers, and parents can help children develop those attributes.