1 The advocacy groups that participated in cocreating the Health eHeart Alliance are the American Heart Association, Mended Hearts, StopAfib.org, and SADS Foundation.
2 David Bollier, “Progressive Philanthropy Needs to Spur System Change,” News and Perspectives on the Commons. May 2016.
3 The 20 organizations were: CDA Collaborative Learning Projects, Chaordix, Chorus Foundation, Community Organizers Multiversity, Concordia, Environmental Defense Fund (Restore the Mississippi River Delta Coalition), Faster Than 20, Feedback Labs, Foundation for Louisiana, Incourage, Invest2Innovate, Perpetual, Remix SOI (Community Ownership of Innovation), Sehat Kahani, Standing Rock Sioux tribe, TechSoup, Textizen, The Emergence Collective, University of Vermont Masters in Leadership for Sustainability, and Yellow Seed.
4 It is important to note that the co-learning group is predominantly US-based organizations. This is due in part to the limitations of our study and convening capacity, but it also reflects an intentional decision to focus on the sphere in which we operate as two US-based researchers and practitioners and a sphere whose practices have global ramifications, for better or worse. The lack of representation from other areas of the world should in no way imply that the United States is somehow leading on breakout innovation. To the contrary, in the developing world, grassroots organizations and social movements, in many instances, have been thought leaders in these realms.
5 Andrew Van de Ven, Engaged Scholarship: A Guide for Organizational and Social Research, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2007.
6 Joanna Levitt Cea and Jess Rimington, “Designing with the Beneficiary: An essential strategy to optimize impact,” MIT Innovations, forthcoming 2017.
7 Brian Walker, C. S. Holling, Stephen R. Carpenter, and Ann Kinzig, “Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social-Ecological Systems,” Ecology & Society, vol. 9, no. 2, 2004.
8 David Graeber, Fragments of an Anarchist Archeology, Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2004.
9 Nikolaus Franke, Peter Keinz, and Katharina Klausberger, “‘Does This Sound Like a Fair Deal?’ Antecedents and Consequences of Fairness Expectations in the Individual’s Decision to Participate in Firm Innovation,” Organization Science, vol. 24, no. 5, 2013: pp. 1495-1516.
10 James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies, and Nations, New York: Random House, 2004.
12 Back to Development: A Call for What Development Could Be, International Accountability Project, 2015.
13 Chris Mooney, “Just Looking at Nature Can Help Your Brain Work Better, Study Finds,” Washington Post, May 26, 2015; and Chris Mooney, “New Research Suggests Nature Walks Are Good for Your Brain,” Washington Post, June 29, 2015.
14 Jon Elster, “The Optimal Design of a Constituent Assembly,” prepared for the colloquium on Collective Wisdom, Collège de France, May 2008.
15 Cea and Rimington, “Designing with the Beneficiary.”
16 Gilbert Rist, The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith, London: Zed Books, 1997.
17 CDA calls for a paradigm shift toward a collaborative aid system in: Mary Anderson, Dayna Brown, and Isabella Jean, Time to Listen: Hearing People on the Receiving End of International Aid, Cambridge, Mass.: CDA Collaborative Learning Projects, 2012.
18 We tested the index on 10 cocreative design processes in the areas of economic development, public health, disaster relief, product development, education, philanthropy, and public utilities. For each case, a team of third-party evaluators interviewed three stakeholders involved at different stages of the cocreation process, and then transcribed these recorded conversations. The transcripts were read by two independent reviewers and scored according to the index. Shelly Helgeson, Dylan Rose Schneider, Hafsa Mustafa, and Dr. Melissa Nelson each played a vital role in this process. The full list of evaluative questions, the scoring rubric, and additional information is available at: www.recollective.way.com